The vote failed 58-42 in a setback for U.S. Sen. Bernie Sanders, I-Vt., who pushed for the amendment.
Meanwhile, Senate Majority Leader Chuck Schumer said the Senate would "power through" on the broader effort to pass the coronavirus bill.
But Senate Minority Leader Mitch McConnell requested an adjournment until 10 a.m. Saturday, sparking a Senate roll call vote on his proposal.
This is a developing story. Check back for updates.